Build for flounderBack to the overview
These instructions will hopefully assist you to start with a stock Google Nexus 9 (Wi-Fi), unlock the bootloader (if necessary), and then download the required tools as well as the very latest source code for LineageOS (based on Google’s Android operating system) for your device. Using these, you can build both a LineageOS installation zip and a LineageOS Recovery image and install them on your device.
It is difficult to say how much experience is necessary to follow these instructions. While this guide is certainly not for the extremely uninitiated, these steps shouldn’t require a PhD in software development either. Some readers will have no difficulty and breeze through the steps easily. Others may struggle over the most basic operation. Because people’s experiences, backgrounds, and intuitions differ, it may be a good idea to read through just to ascertain whether you feel comfortable or are getting over your head.
Remember, you assume all risk of trying this, but you will reap the rewards! It’s pretty satisfying to boot into a fresh operating system you baked at home :). And once you’re an Android-building ninja, there will be no more need to wait for “nightly” builds from anyone. You will have at your fingertips the skills to build a full operating system from code and install it to a running device, whenever you want. Where you go from there– maybe you’ll add a feature, fix a bug, add a translation, or use what you’ve learned to build a new app or port to a new device– or maybe you’ll never build again– it’s all really up to you.
What you’ll need
- A Google Nexus 9 (Wi-Fi).
- A relatively recent 64-bit computer:
- Linux, macOS, or Windows - these instructions are only tested using Ubuntu LTS, so we recommend going with that.
- A reasonable amount of RAM (16 GB to build up to
lineage-17.1, 32 GB or more for
lineage-18.1and up). The less RAM you have, the longer the build will take. Enabling ZRAM can be helpful.
- A reasonable amount of Storage (200 GB to build up to
lineage-17.1, 300 GB for
lineage-18.1and up). You might require more free space for enabling
ccacheor building for multiple devices. Using SSDs results in considerably faster build times than traditional hard drives.
- A decent internet connection and reliable electricity. :)
- Some familiarity with basic Android operation and terminology.
It may be useful to know some basic command line concepts such as
cd, which stands for “change directory”, the concept of directory hierarchies, and that in Linux they are separated by
Install the platform-tools
If you haven’t previously installed
fastboot, you can download them from Google.
Extract it running:
unzip platform-tools-latest-linux.zip -d ~
Now you have to add
fastboot to your PATH. Open
~/.profile and add the following:
# add Android SDK platform tools to path if [ -d "$HOME/platform-tools" ] ; then PATH="$HOME/platform-tools:$PATH" fi
source ~/.profile to update your environment.
Install the build packages
Several packages are needed to build LineageOS. You can install these using your distribution’s package manager.
apt-get installcommand directly in the Terminal.
To build LineageOS, you’ll need:
bc bison build-essential ccache curl flex g++-multilib gcc-multilib git gnupg gperf imagemagick lib32ncurses5-dev lib32readline-dev lib32z1-dev libelf-dev liblz4-tool libncurses5 libncurses5-dev libsdl1.2-dev libssl-dev libxml2 libxml2-utils lzop pngcrush rsync schedtool squashfs-tools xsltproc zip zlib1g-dev
For Ubuntu versions older than 20.04 (focal), install also:
While for Ubuntu versions older than 16.04 (xenial), install:
Different versions of LineageOS require different JDK (Java Development Kit) versions.
- LineageOS 18.1+: OpenJDK 11 (included in source download)
- LineageOS 16.0-17.1: OpenJDK 1.9 (included in source download)
- LineageOS 14.1-15.1: OpenJDK 1.8 (install
- LineageOS 11.0-13.0: OpenJDK 1.7 (install
* Ubuntu 16.04 and newer do not have OpenJDK 1.7 in the standard package repositories. See the Ask Ubuntu question “How do I install openjdk 7 on Ubuntu 16.04 or higher?”. Note that the suggestion to use PPA openjdk-r is outdated (the PPA has never updated their offering of openjdk-7-jdk, so it lacks security fixes); skip that answer even if it is the most upvoted.
For building LineageOS 17.1 and above, you will need
python3 as your system`s default. You can check this by calling
If you are building any of the older branches,
python2 is required instead.
There are various methods to using it, e.g. symlinking it manually or creating a virtualenv for it.
We recommend the latter:
Generate the virtualenv once using
virtualenv --python=python2 ~/.lineage_venv. Afterwards, activate it in each terminal where you need
python2 as default by running
~/.lineage_venv can be chosen freely, this is just an example!
Create the directories
You’ll need to set up some directories in your build environment.
To create them:
mkdir -p ~/bin mkdir -p ~/android/lineage
~/bin directory will contain the git-repo tool (commonly named “repo”) and the
~/android/lineage directory will contain the source code of LineageOS.
Enter the following to download the
repo binary and make it executable (runnable):
curl https://storage.googleapis.com/git-repo-downloads/repo > ~/bin/repo chmod a+x ~/bin/repo
~/bin directory in your path of execution
In recent versions of Ubuntu,
~/bin should already be in your PATH. You can check this by opening
~/.profile with a text editor and verifying the following code exists (add it if it is missing):
# set PATH so it includes user's private bin if it exists if [ -d "$HOME/bin" ] ; then PATH="$HOME/bin:$PATH" fi
source ~/.profile to update your environment.
repo requires you to identify yourself to sync Android, run the following commands to configure your
git config --global user.email "[email protected]" git config --global user.name "Your Name"
Turn on caching to speed up build
Make use of
ccache if you want to speed up subsequent builds by running:
export USE_CCACHE=1 export CCACHE_EXEC=/usr/bin/ccache
and adding that line to your
~/.bashrc file. Then, specify the maximum amount of disk space you want
ccache to use by typing this:
ccache -M 50G
50G corresponds to 50GB of cache. This needs to be run once. Anywhere from 25GB-100GB will result in very noticeably increased build speeds
(for instance, a typical 1hr build time can be reduced to 20min). If you’re only building for one device, 25GB-50GB is fine. If you plan to build
for several devices that do not share the same kernel source, aim for 75GB-100GB. This space will be permanently occupied on your drive, so take this
You can also enable the optional
ccache compression. While this may involve a slight performance slowdown, it increases the number of files that fit in the cache. To enable it, run:
ccache -o compression=true
ccachesize can be lower (aim for approximately 20GB for one device).
Jack is the currently used Java toolchain for building LineageOS 14.1 and 15.1. It is known to run out of memory often if not configured correctly - a simple fix is to run this command:
export ANDROID_JACK_VM_ARGS="-Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 -XX:+TieredCompilation -Xmx4G"
Adding that command to your
~/.bashrc file will automatically configure Jack to allocate a sufficient amount of memory (in this case, 4GB).
Initialize the LineageOS source repository
The following branches can be used to build for the Google Nexus 9 (Wi-Fi):
Enter the following to initialize the repository:
cd ~/android/lineage repo init -u https://github.com/LineageOS/android.git -b cm-14.1
Download the source code
To start the download of the source code to your computer, type the following:
The LineageOS manifests include a sensible default configuration for repo, which we strongly suggest you use (i.e. don’t add any options to sync).
For reference, our default values are
-j 4 and
-j 4 part implies be four simultaneous threads/connections. If you experience
problems syncing, you can lower this to
-j 3 or
-j 2. On the other hand,
-c makes repo to pull in only the current branch instead of all branches that are available on GitHub.
repo synccommand is used to update the latest source code from LineageOS and Google. Remember it, as you may want to do it every few days to keep your code base fresh and up-to-date. But note, if you make any changes, running
repo syncmay wipe them away!
Prepare the device-specific code
After the source downloads, ensure you’re in the root of the source code (
cd ~/android/lineage), then type:
source build/envsetup.sh breakfast flounder
Extract proprietary blobs
Now ensure your Google Nexus 9 (Wi-Fi) is connected to your computer via the USB cable, with ADB and root enabled, and that you are in the
~/android/lineage/device/htc/flounder folder. Then run the
The blobs should be pulled into the
~/android/lineage/vendor/htc folder. If you see “command not found” errors,
need to be placed in
Start the build
Time to start building! Now, type:
croot brunch flounder
The build should begin.
Assertion `cnt < (sizeof (_nl_value_type_LC_TIME) / sizeof (_nl_value_type_LC_TIME))' failed., type
export LC_ALL=Cand start the build again.
Install the build
Assuming the build completed without errors (it will be obvious when it finishes), type the following in the terminal window the build ran in:
There you’ll find all the files that were created. The two files of more interest are:
recovery.img, which is the LineageOS recovery image.
lineage-14.1-20230129-UNOFFICIAL-flounder.zip, which is the LineageOS installer package.
Success! So… what’s next?
You’ve done it! Welcome to the elite club of self-builders. You’ve built your operating system from scratch, from the ground up. You are the master/mistress of your domain… and hopefully you’ve learned a bit on the way and had some fun too.